4. Where is all the Anti-Matter?
In the super symmetry model, all sub-atomic particles that have been discovered should have a partner particle, one that has opposite properties. For example, a particle such as a proton is positive in its normal state. In this model however, protons have an opposite version of themselves, called antiprotons. These are basically protons with negative charges. The problem with this however, is that anti-matter particles should also be created in the process of creating normal particles. Anti-matter particles should also destroy regular matter when they touch, showing that the matter in this universe shouldn’t actually exist. Of course, what we actually find is that the universe is dominated by matter, and anti-matter is almost nowhere to be found.
- What caused the big bang?
We commonly hear that the big bang is a point in time where an extremely dense singularity, that held all matter in the universe, rapidly expanded. From this came everything that we know and see today. Although there is strong evidence to support this model, there is no answer to where this singularity came from in the first place. Basic laws of physics put a huge roadblock on this question, as they state that “Matter cannot be destroyed or created.” Some physicists such as Lawrence Krauss and Michio Kaku though, have answers that involve quantum fluctuations and a zero-energy universe.
- What is Dark Matter?
When physicists made models of how bodies of masses moved around galaxies, they expected a direct relationship between the distance from the centre and the velocity of the mass. This was based on how gravity gets weaker as you go farther from the body of mass that is exhibiting this gravity. These models however, were proved wrong when physicist discovered that this relationship doesn’t exist. Along with this, galaxies were much heavier than they were previously predicted to be. Because stars are known to be the main mass of a galaxy, using the luminosity of a galaxy and multiplying it by a brightness to mass ratio should give a mass that is somewhat below the mass that is measured by gravity. Physicists discovered however, that the luminosity mass of galaxies was exponentially smaller than the mass measured by gravity. Both these strange observations show that there is extra gravity that is unaccounted for. Physicists have not discovered a particle or reason for this, and have used the phrase dark matter to describe this phenomenon.
1. What is Dark Energy?
When physicists realized that the universe was expanding, basic laws of physics told them that the expansion would eventually slow down and then reverse. This was known as the big crunch, where gravity would overpower the expansion of space and pull all bodies of mass back together. Physicists recently discovered however, using the speed of distant galaxies, that the expansion of the universe was actually speeding up. This phenomenon is also currently unexplained, and is known by the phrase “Dark Energy.”